COVID-19 -Most Trusted Resources

COVID-19 and Corona Virus SARS-CoV-2
COVID-19 and Corona Virus SARS-CoV-2 - Helpful Resources
The most credible information on COVID-19 nCOV from key health global authorities.

Virus Research, Vaccines, Immunity & Cure

The COVID-19 vaccines are the fastest vaccines ever developed, in just 8 months. (Nature 12/18/2020).
SARS CoV-2 is a single-strand RNA virus with 30,000 letters that’s constantly mutating (NYTimes 4/30/2020). is constantly tracking them.
Different routes to developing the vaccine. The Economist 4/16/2020; Nature 4/28/2020. They are all trying to make the Spike-protein.
Convalescent plasma studies show immunity develops in most exposed people. About half the population may already have immunity due to common-cold viruses (Cell 5/14/2020 and Charite pre-print 4/22/2020).
Research Publications: pre-prints on infection, testing and vaccine development.
BioMed Central publications on rapid research of COVID-19 and SARS-CoV2.
BiorXiv & MedrXiv Pre-prints on latest research on the pandemic.
How exactly does the virus bind to the cell, through the ACE2 recepters on the cell? JAMA 3/5/2020
Over 90% of human COVID-19 genome matches with those found in Pangolian and Bats (Current Biology 3/19/2020 ). Early identification in this genome sequencing data (2/3/2020).
Moderna’s coronavirus vaccine trial coverage by Science magazine (3/25/2020).
Plant based remedies may not cure, but often help alleviate the symptoms (Nature 3/16/2020).
Tracking the status of COVID-19 vaccines: RAPS (8/15/2020).
FDA page tracking COVID-19 treatments: CTAP (8/16/2020).
COVID-19 treatments


  • Incubation Time: Average incubation time of COVID-19 about 5.5 days. Average time for fever 5.7 days. First symptoms appear in about 11.5 days for most cases. (NEJM Catalyst)
  • Symptoms: Fever, cough and shortness of breath (CDC’s list of symptoms).
  • Tip: Proper hand washing technique (YouTube).
  • High risk of infection from stool – virus detected on average 11 days after negative results from nose & throat (Lancet 3/19/2020).
  • COVID-19 testing and treatment is allowed by high-deductible (HDHP) plans as per temporary IRS guideline (as of 3/11/2020).
  • Tested positive, now what? Don’t panic. Few tips from an infectious disease doctor (Medium, 3/30/2020).
  • Does any mask help, even a scarf? It depends, says a 2013 study of different materials shown in the chart below.
Mask fabric filteration efficiency
Comparison of mask material from a 2013 pandemic preparednessstudy.
Airflow from cough mouth covered
Air flow during various improvisations to cover the faceThe Lancet, 2014
Air Flow: Video showing cough spread with and without masks(The Royal Society, 2009)

Symptoms of 1099 positive cases from Wuhan, China (<a style=" text-decoration: underline;" href="">NEJM updated Mar 6, 2020</a>)
Symptoms of 1099 positive cases from Wuhan, China (NEJM updated Mar 6, 2020)
About 16% affected people see <a style=" text-decoration: underline;" href="">digestive</a> symptoms (3/25/2020)
About 16% affected people see digestive symptoms (3/25/2020)
Most cases are mild to moderate among <a style=" text-decoration: underline;" href="">children</a> (3/16/2020)
Most cases are mild to moderate among children (3/16/2020)
Infants are at highest risk among children with severe and <a style=" text-decoration: underline;" href="">critical symptoms</a> (3/16/2020)
Infants are at highest risk among children with severe and critical symptoms (3/16/2020)

Testing for COVID-19

  • Different types of tests: DNA/RNA test uses a nose and/or throat swab (rt-PCR); the blood test checks for antibodies (serology test) (CDC Lab Work). Saliva based test with 92% success (12 Feb 2020). There are few other tests (FDA’s full list of approved tests).
  • Nasal or throat swab? What’s the most effective sample to test? (JAMA 3/17/2020) – cough: 72%, nasal swab: 63% (contains most virus), throat: 32%, stool: 29% (can potentially transmit even without diarrhea – JAMA 3/4/2020), blood: 1%, urine: 0%.
  • How long virus lives on surfaces? (NEJM 3/17/2020) – Plastics: over 3 days, Stainless steel: over 2 days, Card-board: less than 1 day, Copper: less than 4 hours, Air: half-life less than 1 hour. Also see: cleaning works, PPE, masks, gowns protect (JAMA 3/4/2020).
  • Guidelines on sample collection, handling, storing & shipping: most up-to-date CDC guidelines.
  • Fraudulent Tests: FDA warning on unauthorized tests for public risk.
  • Recommended nasal and throat swabs from Puritan Medical Products.
  • How to collect samples with nasal swabs for all ages: Copan’s demo video for various ages
  • An at-home blood sample collection video with instructions.

How to Obtain a Nasopharyngeal Swab Specimen? The New England Journal of Medicineexplains.

Nasal swabs are painful, but they have millions more viruses (<a style=" text-decoration: underline;" href="">Nature Medicine</a> 4/3/2020).
Nasal swabs are painful, but they have millions more viruses (Nature Medicine 4/3/2020).
Stool samples are at much higher risk of contamination (even after recovery) – (<a style=" text-decoration: underline;" href="">Lancet</a> 3/19/2020)
Stool samples are at much higher risk of contamination (even after recovery) – (Lancet 3/19/2020)
Two cases showing virus can be detected on day 4 but lasts longer in fecal samples. (<a style=" text-decoration: underline;" href="">Lancet</a>, 3/24/2020)
Two cases showing virus can be detected on day 4 but lasts longer in fecal samples. (Lancet, 3/24/2020)

Lab Guidelines

  • Diagnostic Test can be launched by any certified lab as FDA delegated testing responsibility to states on 3/16/2020.
  • Tested positive? Report to your local and state authorities using these latest CDC guidelines.
  • CDC’s Information for Laboratories: provides technical guidance to doctors and labs about testing
  • Lab Testing: WHO’s technical guidance for labs to develop tests from human samples.

Seasons for respiratory virus infections


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